By Cathy Gallivan, PhD
Photos by Phil Smith
Breezy Ridge Farm was established in 1983, when Phil and Liz Smith bought a 32-acre parcel of land and established a small flock of 40 mixed breed ewes. In 1990, they acquired their first purebred Rideau Arcotts, shortly after the release of the breed from the Agricultural Research Centre near Ottawa. The flock has since grown to 550 head, with seven different genetic lines. As the flock has expanded, so has the land base; in 1999, the Smiths were able to purchase 65 acres on the other side of the road, which had at one time been part of the same farm. They also rent a further 155 acres of hay land.
Like many Rideau flocks, the Breezy Ridge ewes are managed to lamb more often than once per year. Phil describes the size of each lambing group as fluid, because it evolves with conception rates and changes in the management system.
Breezy Ridge ewes grazing alfalfa pastures. Lasolocid is added to the free-choice salt and mineral mix to reduce bloat.
All of the ewes lamb in the first half of the year, either in March/April or May/June/July. The March/April group is exposed to rams again in June. Those that conceive and lamb in November are weaned and rebred (along with the ewe lambs) starting at the end of December to become the late lambing group the following year. The May/June/July group gets rebred starting November 1, to become the early lambing group the following year.
The June breeding season takes place on pasture, with all of the early-lambing ewes being exposed together in a single group to multiple rams. Some of these ewes are treated with CIDRs, but a number of the ones that do not receive CIDRs also conceive and go on to lamb in November. Ewes exposed in June get scanned in October to determine if they are pregnant or not, but the operator doesn’t attempt to count lambs, as Phil feeds all pregnant ewes as if they are carrying triplets. Ewes that are not pregnant at scanning get rebred in November and lamb in March and April again the following year.
Round bales of hay and silage are fed in a bale feeder designed by the Smiths to reduce lamb losses.
Phil limits the June and November breeding seasons to a single, 21-day cycle to allow for time off between winter lambing groups so that barn spaces can clear out between groups of lambing ewes and the family can recharge their own batteries (and go curling).
Above, and below: Corn and pellets are hand fed in a grain-feeding yard in lightweight feeders made from lengths of 18” plastic culvert. Some of the feeders are mounted in frames to keep the sheep out and permit panels to be attached on either side.
The original barn on the home farm was torn down in 1986 and replaced with a metal-clad, pole barn measuring 40×80’ that is now used primarily as the lamb feedlot. A 30×100’, greenhouse-type structure and a second metal-clad pole barn (104×44’) provide housing for ewes and space for lambing. There are two hoop buildings for hay storage (100×30’ and 68×30’) in the yard, and a further 50×104’ of hay storage on the 65 acres across the road.
Ewes that lamb in the fall and winter do so in the barn. Lambs are tagged and recorded while in the lambing jugs, and given Baycox® to prevent coccidiosis at 24 hours of age. Mature ewes get to keep three or four of the lambs they give birth to, depending on their past performance and milk supply. Additional lambs are reared on Serval Lamb-O milk replacer on a Förster-Technik milk replacer machine in the insulated, 11×30’ nursery barn. All lambs (except those raised on pasture) are creep fed on Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGs). Lambs raised on ewes are weaned at 60 days; lambs on milk replacer are weaned at 28 days or 25-30 pounds.
Ewe lambs are housed and fed separately from the mature ewes until they are a few weeks away from lambing, when they join the May/June lambing ewes. Weather permitting, the whole group goes out on pasture in mid to late April, where they give birth. After a couple of days in a lambing jug in an emptied hay shed, ewe lambs with one lamb, and mature ewes with one or two, stay outside and raise their lambs on pasture. Ewe lambs with twins, and mature ewes with three or more, go from the jugs into group pens inside the barn.
When I spoke with the Smiths in late August, all of the ewes had been weaned and were being pastured in a single group, and Phil was looking forward to his third cut of hay being harvested in the next two weeks. With 550 ewes to feed, the entire land base is devoted to grazing and forage production, with grain and supplements all being purchased.
The 32 acres of the home place is almost always in pasture, unless it is being renovated. The Smiths have been strip-grazing silage corn since 2006. They plant it the year before the alfalfa is reseeded, and graze it or bale it as silage. This year they have about five acres in corn, although they have had as many as 15 after a bad winter kill on the alfalfa. A 36-acre parcel of rented land right next door is also used for pasture in late summer and fall; the ewes run down the road every morning and back every evening. Previously used as hay land, this piece is a bit worn out, but Phil is waiting to ensure he will have ongoing access to it before reseeding it.
Extra lambs are raised on a milk replacer machine in an insulated, heated lamb nursery building. Sons David (left) and Nicholas are both home and working on the farm right now.
The Smiths’ own land is fenced with five strands of electric wire on the perimeter and three strands inside, most of which is Gallagher. The 36-acre piece next door is grazed with portable reels of electric fence with two wires and step-in posts, another Gallagher product, which is powered from the permanent fence at the boundary with their own land. The reel/wire combination is also used to subdivide pastures for rotational grazing.
The remaining 65 acres of owned land, and 119 acres of rented land, are used for hay production. All of the hay fields are at least 80% alfalfa, with the balance of the mix in orchardgrass and timothy. Hay fields are replanted with brown midrib sorghum sudangrass as a nurse crop. The sudangrass produces a good volume of forage, but the bales have to be wrapped in plastic. A custom operator puts up the hay, with the Smiths doing the raking and bringing the bales in from the field.
After the frost in the fall, the ewes graze the 65 acres of hay land across the road from the home place, where some of them also get bred. Last fall, the snow came on November 1 and they missed out on that late fall grazing.
The ewes are supplemented with purchased corn grain and a 34% crude protein supplement pellet, with the amounts fed depending on the stage of production. Lambs raised on ewes are fed a mix of corn and the same pellet. The pellet also includes the vitamins and minerals required by the ewes and lambs. A custom salt and mineral mix provides extra selenium to the pregnant ewes, so that lambs do not have to be injected with selenium in the claiming pens. The custom mix is also used when the ewes are on pasture, as it contains lasalocid (Bovatec®), which helps prevent bloat on the alfalfa pastures.
Above and below: Drop down augers in both steel barns allow for easy expansion of the lamb feedlot as needed. Repurposed hog feeders work well for lambs and can be raised up on a tire as the lambs grow.
Ewe lambs that are selected for breeding stock are taken off concentrates and introduced to pasture at 75 pounds. Ram lambs are selected and put out with the mature rams at 110 pounds. Lambs raised on pasture are weaned at 70 days of age and transitioned onto full feed in the barn.
All of the lambs get an RFID tag at birth, which is used as a management tool, not just for traceability purposes after they leave the farm. A Psion handheld computer scans the tags on the ewes and lambs in the jugs and records this and other lambing data, which is uploaded to the Ewe Byte Management System on their home computer. Weighing data are collected by a Tru-Test XRP2 Electronic ID reader and XR500 scale head and also uploaded to Ewe Byte. Phil makes extensive use of Ewe Byte to manage the flock and track the level of inbreeding among its seven different genetic lines. Data is also exported to GenOvis, the national genetic evaluation program, which produces EPDs for maternal, growth and carcass traits, allowing the Smiths to compare their animals to Rideau Arcotts in other flocks across Canada.
Because the ewes that lamb in November are exposed to multiple sires, all flock replacements are chosen from lambs born at other times of year. Ram lambs are selected from dams that are at least five years old, based on the dam’s performance for number of lambs weaned, adjusted 50-day weights and lambing intervals, a very time-consuming process. Ewe lambs are selected on similar criteria but because more of them are needed, they can be selected from ewes that are less than five years old.
Most of the ewes have three or more lambs. This ewe has five and will be allowed to keep three or four of them, depending on her past history and milk production.
After being selected as lambs, based on the longevity and performance of their dams, rams get tested as yearlings for genetic resistance to scrapie and Maedi visna. Liz says the genotype information provides another level of selection information that some buyers are looking for, after first selections are made on performance.
Like most producers who pasture their sheep, the Smiths spend more time thinking about worms than they want to and are interested in solutions that go beyond consideration of available worming products. Since 2011, they have been involved in a breeding project aimed at developing parasite resistance in the Rideau Arcott breed. They have partnered in this with Dr. Angela Canovas of the Centre for the Genetic Improvement of Livestock at the University of Guelph, and Delma Kennedy with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.
Hired man Justin Pape drenches lambs with assistance from David Smith.
The selection is based on regular fecal samples, and Phil is very enthusiastic about the progress they have made in selecting resistant animals (see sidebar page 14). DNA samples have also been taken from the whole flock for future testing for genetic markers for parasite resistance.
Although they do a brisk business in breeding stock, the Smiths also sell slaughter lambs. Because of their location one hour from Toronto, they have lots of marketing options, but most go to the Ontario Stockyards at Cookstown at about 100 pounds live weight. With lambs born over several months of the year, they are able to ship lambs nearly year-round.
Phil and Liz are fortunate to have their sons, David and Nicholas, working with them on the farm, as well as a hired man, Justin Pape, who works Monday to Friday but puts in longer hours during lambing. Phil, David and Justin do most of the feeding, lambing and record keeping; Phil is also in charge of promotion. Liz does the book-keeping, provides late evening lambing help, and starts new lambs on the milk replacer machine. Nicholas is recently back in the country after volunteering for two-and-a-half years at the Baháʼí World Centre in Haifa, Israel. With his work as an electrician disrupted by the pandemic, he has been spending more time on the farm.
Students prepare to collect fecal samples from a group of rams as part of an ongoing project to select for resistance to parasites.
After nearly 40 years of raising sheep, Phil and Liz seem keen to continue, and even expand the flock to support the involvement of one or both of their sons. Expansion will depend on their ability to secure more land in the area and put up additional buildings to accommodate more ewes. The work on selecting a parasite-resistant Rideau Arcott is especially rewarding, as it complements their belief in grazing their animals and taking a holistic approach to sheep farming.
Breezy GenOvis report
Suffolk ewes and lambs on pasture at Blackie Farm, Florenceville, New Brunswick.
By Cathy Gallivan, PhD; Photos by James Blackie
Blackie Farm is located in the village of Florenceville in western New Brunswick, which is less than 15 km from the US border. This area is known for growing potatoes, and the village is home to the corporate headquarters of McCain Foods, the largest producer of French fries in the world.
The 200-acre farm was purchased in 1926 by James’ grandfather, Daniel Blackie. Daniel had three sons and two of them, including James’ father, went off to fight in the Second World War. The remaining son, James’ Uncle Donald, stayed home and ran the farm after Daniel died in 1940. The farm is long and narrow and climbs upward from the eastern bank of the Saint John River. James says there have been sheep on the farm as long as it has been in his family.
The farm was purchased by James’ grandfather in 1926.
James grew up within a mile of the farm and spent most of his free time there, especially in the summers. His uncle raised potatoes and had a commercial flock that peaked at around 275 ewes in the early 1970’s. James remembers seeing his first lamb born when he was 10, and shearing his first sheep, a North Country Cheviot, at 12.
James graduated from high school in 1973 and went to the Nova Scotia Agricultural College in Truro. There he met Cecile, a French Acadian girl from St Charles, on the eastern side of the province, and brought her to visit the farm the following summer. Uncle Donald was not exactly progressive in his thinking, being of the opinion that a woman’s place was in the home rather than out working with the animals. But while they were out on the pasture looking at the sheep, they needed to catch one for some reason and Cecile proved her mettle by grabbing it by a hind leg and not letting go. Uncle Donald didn’t say much, but never questioned Cecile working with the sheep again.
One of three breeding groups being bred on pasture in October.
James finished his Bachelor’s degree in Animal Science at Macdonald College of McGill University in 1977 and he and Cecile were married the same year and began living in Truro. Cecile worked at the college there as a Chemistry Lab Technologist, and James sold feed for Shur-Gain.
In March of 1980, James got a job working for the New Brunswick Department of Agriculture in Wicklow, just across the river from his uncle’s farm. He and Cecile returned to Florenceville and built their own house on the farm. The next 10 years were a busy time. James helped his uncle on the farm and worked full time, while Cecile kept busy with the five children born to them during those years.
Suffolk ewe lambs in the fall of 2019.
Uncle Donald died in 1994. It took a while for things to be settled but James and Cecile were able to buy the farm from his father and remaining uncle in 1998. James had always had sheep of his own within his uncle’s flock. After his uncle’s death these became the foundation of their own commercial flock, which peaked at around 100 ewes in the 1990’s.
The flock was managed traditionally. Lambs were born in March and pastured throughout the summer. Most were slaughtered at a small, local abattoir and delivered to freezer customers. The ‘tail-enders’ were put on a truck and sent to an auction in Quebec. James put up his own hay and fed it along with whole oats in the winter, the quantity of each depending on the quality of the hay. When the hay was poor, he fed more of it and allowed the sheep to pick through it and select the best parts.
Above and below: Lambs are born in March and go to pasture in May with the ewes, but still have access to creep feed in the barn until 100-day weights are taken in early July, after which they are weaned and pastured separately from the ewes.
Over the last 10 or 12 years, the purebred flock has gradually replaced the commercial ewes and today there are only registered Suffolks on the farm. The ewes still lamb in March; James says he and Cecile are too old to change their ways, and at least when the temperature falls to -30 Celsius in March they know April is just around the corner.
The feeding regime is also largely the same, consisting of their own hay supplemented by whole oats. Although his uncle grew potatoes on the farm, James found putting up around 3,500 small, square bales of hay and managing the sheep on pasture took as much time as he could spare from his full time job when he was working. He buys whole oats and an 18% crude protein creep ration with added Bovatec (for coccidiosis control), as well as second-cut hay for the creep feeder. Straw is purchased in the field from another farmer and James bales and hauls home about 700 small, square bales each year.
Pregnant mature ewes last winter. This picture was taken to taunt a fellow Suffolk breeder who roots for the Maple Leafs.
Since purchasing the purebred sheep, and especially since his retirement, James has increased his investment in the flock to improve its health status and performance. After several years of testing for genetic resistance to scrapie, all but one of the ewes are now AARRRR (resistant). Last fall the entire flock, including the lambs, were tested for Maedi-Visna and all of them came back negative. James plans to continue testing and hopes the flock will receive its “A” status on the Ontario Maedi-Visna Flock Status Program in the next year or two.
The flock is also registered on the GenOvis genetic evaluation program. Lambs are weighed at 50 and 100 days of age, and for the past six years a technician has come from Quebec to ultrasound them for fat and muscle depth. This allows James to select on the CARC (carcass) index when choosing rams and ewes for his flock, and also to provide that information to prospective buyers. The GenOvis report on pages 10-11 shows the 2019 production of the flock. The 2019 Lamb Report (21 pages, not shown) provides index results for each of the 83 lambs that were ultrasounded. The emphasis on the CARC index is noticeable: 14 of the 83 lambs are in the 99th percentile for the CARC index, and a further 15 are in the 98th percentile.
James participates in the All Canada Classic when the location and timing of the event allow, and his animals have been well received by buyers at the sale. But he prioritizes the production of a good terminal sire for the commercial producers he primarily sells to over success in the show ring.
James regrets not having bought an effective handling system many years ago and finds the digital scale much faster and easier to read than his old spring scale.
One of the biggest challenges the Blackies have had to deal with over the years is parasitism. The barber pole worm is as big a problem here in western New Brunswick as it is in the rest of the country. They have also had problems with liver flukes, which they didn’t realize until they were alerted to it by the abattoir where their lambs are processed. The current protocol is to treat the ewes at lambing with Valbazen, and then worm both the ewes and lambs throughout the summer with Startect, starting three or four weeks after they go to pasture.
Coyotes are another potentially serious problem when pasturing ewes and lambs, but the Blackies have had good luck keeping them out with a combination of electric fencing and Nite Guards. The perimeter fence consists of 12.5-gauge wire. Temporary fences made from a lighter wire (17-gauge) subdivide the pasture into 1-acre paddocks for rotational grazing. The Nite Guards are solar-powered lights that flash red from dusk to dawn. The combination of electric fencing and the Nite Guards seems to be working and the sheep have been able to stay out at night in their paddocks for the last 10 years.
James and Cecile Blackie
Among the many lessons learned over 40 years of raising sheep, James includes:
Make sure you spend the extra to get the ewes in great shape for breeding and for the winter, otherwise you are trying to catch up all winter. One tonne of grain costs as much as one lamb at most.
The single most important management item when pasturing sheep is to worm them and then know that the wormer is working, and to keep on top of your worming schedule; otherwise, a lot of effort is going down the drain.
Don’t put off getting a sheep handling system. If you decide to get one, spend the money to get a digital scale. The numbers are harder to make a mistake on, especially when your eyes aren’t as young as they used to be.
In addition to the sheep, James and Cecile have another farm enterprise, a market garden, which started in the early 90’s with their three sons at the end of the lane selling a barrel of potatoes. By 1995, they were selling more vegetables from the front of Uncle Donald’s old house, which was still standing in the yard. The enterprise has grown over the last 25 years and now 10 acres of the farm is dedicated to the vegetables, and a new market stand sits where the old house used to be. Crop residues are not a problem; the sheep happily consume the pea and bean vines, corn stalks and any vegetables that are not good enough to sell.
The farm climbs gradually from the river to the back, where there is a beautiful view in all directions. Corn and other vegetables are planted early under plastic. The fertilizer plant seen on the right is on the opposite side of the river.
James and Cecile grow everything in the market garden, but are perhaps best known for their Awesome corn, which many local residents look forward to sampling as early as the August long weekend. Green peas are another big seller, and Cecile has a machine that will shell the peas for her customers after they are purchased.
Because the farm is located right in the village and right next to the McCain Foods plant and headquarters, Cecile is able to sell most of the vegetables right out of their yard, although she does attend a weekly farmers’ market in the nearby village of Bristol. A walk-in cooler in the market stand allows them to store and sell crops such as winter squash later in the season than before. One significant worry about the vegetable business is the way the sheep eye the peas, corn and other vegetables on their way out to the pasture, something that keeps James awake at night, wondering if he shut the gate.
With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic this spring, the Blackies thought about whether to plant vegetables this year or not. They decided to go ahead, knowing that they would have to make major changes in how they deal with the public to sell their produce.
James and Cecile work hard and make a good team. James says, “The sheep are an island where we tend to agree most of the time. I do the chores and Cecile does most of the paperwork. She is the midwife for any lambing problems we might have, and the one with the patience to get a stubborn Suffolk lamb to start sucking. She also helps with communication when French-speaking producers give us a call. I don’t really know what they say but it seems to work out.”
James told all of their children that if they didn’t go to university they might end up back on the farm with him. All five have university degrees and none are back yet. He credits Cecile for motivating them to further their education.
Cecile attends a weekly market in nearby Bristol. All of the Blackie’s signage proclaims ‘We grow everything we sell!”
James and Cecile don’t know how many more years they’ll raise sheep or grow vegetables. James prefers the sheep, but acknowledges that the vegetables involve less physical wear and tear (on him). He jokes, “I tell everyone that when I climb up into the haymow every morning and night, all I have to do is miss one rung and I might be into early retirement.”
Editor’s Note: The villages of Florenceville and Bristol, New Brunswick, were amalgamated into the village of Florenceville-Bristol in 2008 but for simplicity have been referred to separately in this article.
The Willowdale Sheep & Lamb yard, as seen from the southeast. The longest wing of the barn, east of the outdoor pens, is the lambing area. Ewes with lambs move from the lambing area into the centre areas of the barn. The wing closest to the shop (farthest from the lambing area) houses the handling system and permanent shearing setup. Photo by Randy Eros.
By Randy Eros
It was a cool, cloudy January afternoon when I pulled into the parking area at Willowdale Sheep & Lamb, 10 minutes south of Steinbach, Manitoba. The farm sits on a ¼-section (160 acres) that is part of a larger operation owned by Apex Farms.
Harry Warkentin is the manager of the facility, and even before I met up with him I knew I was in for an enjoyable afternoon. As I stepped out of the truck I could hear the voices of the staff hard at work but clearly enjoying what they were doing—always a good sign in any operation. We started our visit in the farm office/staff room over a cup of coffee. From here you can keep an eye on the sheep through a system of cameras strategically placed throughout the barns.
L to R: Harry Warkentin and staff members Edwin Falk, Charity Dueck, Ethan Plett, Bethany Dueck (missing in the photo are Deb Wipf and Alina Fischer). Photo by Randy Eros.
The Willowdale barns are close to home for Harry and his wife, Lorna. They live on the ¼-section straight north of the sheep barns and used to own this one as well. This new venture has been up and running for just over two years, and is currently home to 1,800 ewes.
Like many sheep folks, the Warkentins have a long history in agriculture. They ran a dairy for 12 years and then moved to hogs, putting up the buildings that are now filled with sheep back in 1988. They got into sheep in 2011, and their flock grew to 400 head as they transitioned out of hogs. That flock was merged into what is now the Willowdale flock.
The Warkentins sold this quarter, with the hog barns, three years ago. The new owners wanted to diversify their livestock operations, and asked Harry and Lorna to develop and manage a new sheep operation for them.
This container outside the lambing barn receives the rations for the ewes from the TMR mixer. A conveyor belt carries it from the container into the lambing barn. Photo by Dale Engstrom.
TMR is fed off an overhead belt and into the feed bunks along the outside wall. Photo by Randy Eros.
The flock is mostly straight-bred Rideau Arcotts; there is also a small group of Canadians. The flock is divided into 12 breeding groups of 150 head each. Rams go in with the first group in mid-August, and more rams are added to new groups every two weeks until mid-January. Most (94%) of the ewes catch in the first cycle after being exposed to rams; the rest lamb later with the later breeding groups.
The Willowdale ewes lamb just once a year, but some of them do it out of season in October. Harry uses CIDRs on the ewes that are exposed for fall lambing. Last spring (2019), there were 250 ewes synchronised and exposed to rams, and 75% of them lambed last October.
More out-of-season lambings are planned for this fall, in September, October and November. Harry plans to move into accelerated lambing in 2020, by putting CIDRs in some ewes that lambed this winter, as soon as their lambs are weaned.
The ewes are grouped using a 4-colour tagging system and bred to unrelated groups of purebred Rideau Arcott rams, sourced from Phil and Liz Smith in Ontario. Harry looks for rams with good performance information but is also interested in the work the Smiths are doing with breeding for parasite resistance.
They currently have six ram groups, each with six rams, which are also colour-coded, making for an easy visual tracking system that prevents inbreeding. Lots of ram power is one of the keys to their successful breeding program.
Lambing rates run from 2.3–2.4 in the fall-lambing ewes, and around 3.0 for ewes lambing in season, for an overall rate of about 2.6. The flock is fairly young and these numbers are expected to increase as they mature. The target is to retain or market 2.2 of the 2.6 lambs dropped, and Harry looks forward to higher numbers as they move towards accelerated lambing.
Cameras in the lambing barn allow staff to monitor the action from the barn office. Photo by Randy Eros.
The original barn built for the hogs needed significant internal changes to adapt it for sheep. Pits were filled and all of the floors leveled with an additional layer of concrete. A local welding firm built the panels for pens, alleyways, and gates. The barn is nearly 30,000 square feet in area and consists of five interconnected sections. The lambing area is the largest and is broken up into drop pens that hold 25 ewes. The end of this section contains 39 lambing jugs and several nursery pens.
Attention to detail – this chart in the barn office shows information on each of the 12 lambing groups and tracks the movement of sheep through the barn, as well as helping determine what rations should be delivered where. Photo by Randy Eros.
Photo by Dale Engstrom.
Once the lambs are born and bonded, groups of ewes and lambs move to one of three indoor pens, each of which will house 150 ewes and their lambs, where they stay until weaning. These pens are fed using an automated conveyer belt that delivers a TMR twice daily to a central feed trough built to provide a foot of feeding space per ewe. Each pen includes a creep feeder for the lambs where they can access a custom, 18% crude protein crumble. Straw is used for bedding throughout the barns.
Ewes and lambs in one of three pens in the converted hog barn where they will stay until weaning. TMR is fed from above into a feeder in the centre of the pen. Photo by Dale Engstrom.
The fifth section of the barn contains the handling system and the shearing area. Garrick Reimer, a local shearer, comes in every two weeks from January to June as ewes approach lambing. There is an on-site hydraulic wool packer and full wool bags are shipped to Canadian Cooperative Wool Growers.
Fishing net used to catch lambs. Photo by Dale Engstrom.
Pails of milk in the nursery for lambs who don’t catch on to the nipple-feeding system right away. Photo by Dale Engstrom.
The New Rosedale Feedmill makes up two custom premixes for the farm; this one is fed to ewes in late pregnancy and lactation and contains 30 ppm of selenium. Photo by Randy Eros.
The Förster-Technik milk machine is connected to each of the nursery pens. Photo by Randy Eros.
Directly west of the barn, there are 12 newly built, outdoor paddocks with open-sided shelters that are 12 feet deep. Each paddock is 150 feet long by 70 feet deep. The fence line feeders run the length of the paddock with a 22-foot paved and sloped alleyway between the pens. The pavement extends 7 feet into the pens, giving the sheep solid footing at the feeders in wet weather.
The pens are 150’ long by 70’ wide; sheds running the length of the pens are 12’ deep. Photo by Dale Engstrom.
TMR feeder delivers feed to the outdoor pens every other day. Photo by Randy Eros.
Ewes in these pens are fed a TMR that is mixed and fed every second day. On alternate days, a blade is used to push the remaining feed back up against the feeders, a very efficient system. The ewes stay outside until a week before lambing, when they are brought into the barn and shorn, wormed, vaccinated with Glanvac 6, and treated with Vetolice.
Harry will tell you that a comprehensive nutrition program is essential. The bulk of the ewe ration is a mix of bagged corn silage and alfalfa haylage. The farmland adjacent to the barns has been seeded to alfalfa and the corn silage is harvested from nearby rented land. Barley and corn DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles) supplement the energy and protein provided by the forage.
Dale Engstrom, a livestock nutritionist from Alberta, visits the farm twice a year and balances rations for ewes in each stage of production. Every new bag of hay silage is tested, and the TMR rations are tweaked accordingly.
Custom premixes, designed by Dale and made up by the New Rosedale Feedmill in Portage la Prairie, are added to the TMR to provide salt, mineral and vitamins for ewes in different stages of production. Selenium has been added to address the natural shortage of this trace mineral in our prairie soils. There is a ‘Dry’ ewe premix, which is fed to ewes in maintenance, but also to those being flushed and bred, and to those in early pregnancy. The ‘Lactating’ ewe premix has higher levels of vitamins ADE, as well as Bovatec for the prevention of coccidia, and is fed to ewes in the last six weeks of pregnancy and the first 6-8 weeks of lactation. Limestone is occasionally used to increase calcium content of the TMR. Having all of the required minerals and vitamins in the premix means fewer injections for newborn lambs and less work for the staff at lambing time.
Lambs are weighed, tagged and docked at birth, and also injected with ¼ cc of Tasvax and a ½ cc of penicillin. They are tagged with both a CSIP tag and a breeding group tag in the appropriate colour. Lambing information is recorded on the Shearwell FarmWorks program. Ewes and lambs get up to three days in the claiming pens, if there’s not too much lambing pressure. Ewes are left with two lambs and extra lambs are moved into nursery pens of about 15 head. These pens are all connected to a single Förster-Technik milk machine. A second machine, a Lak-Tek II, is kept at the Warkentin’s farm, where the lambs go to be grown out and finished after weaning. This allows for older nursery lambs to be moved over to the finishing yard if the regular nursery gets too crowded. The target for weaning nursery lambs is 30 days or 10 kg.
Lambs raised by the ewes are weaned at 8 weeks of age and taken on a short trailer ride to the Warkentin’s home yard for growing out and finishing. The original hog barn and adjacent hoop structure on this property are separated into several pens and feed is delivered through augers directly into self-feeders. The 16% crude protein ration is a mix of whole barley and a 32% custom crumble. The variable speed auger from the crumble bin allows the ration to be adjusted as needed. The lambs are vaccinated again shortly after weaning, ewe lambs with Glanvac 6 and male lambs with Tasvax.
After weaning, lambs are moved to the adjacent ¼-section to be grown out and finished in another former hog barn (above) and hoop barn (below), where a mix of barley and protein supplement is delivered through augers directly into self-feeders. Photos by Dale Engstrom.
Most of the finished lambs (60%) are marketed to SunGold Specialty Meats in Innisfail, Alberta, and the rest are sold through lamb buyers like Ian Deans of Newdale, Manitoba. Harry is keen to chase the market, saying, “If you don’t do it right, you’ll leave money on the table.”
Most of the lambs are marketed to SunGold Specialty Meats in Innisfail, Alberta, at a live weight of approximately 125 lb. Photo by Randy Eros.
Lambs sent to SunGold have a live weight target of 125 lb., which they reach at 5–6 months of age. An on-farm spreadsheet has been developed to calculate when lambs will meet this weight and help plan the shipping dates. It includes a number of variables including average daily gain, the percentage shrink on the trip to Alberta, and the historic carcass yield. All of this is done to optimize market returns based on SunGold’s preferred carcass weight of 26.7 kg. The lambs get weighed frequently, which is made easier with an electronic scale and Psion tag reader. The scale does not have Bluetooth capacity (yet), meaning that someone has to read the weight off the electronic scale and type it into a handheld computer/tag reader (Psion) as the lambs are weighed, but at least no one has to read eartags and no clipboard is required.
Harry keeps an eye on the square footage allocated for each lamb as pens are filled. With several people working in the operation, prominently posted written instructions make sure nothing gets missed. Photo by Dale Engstrom.
With the flock in expansion mode in recent years, Harry has been retaining most of their ewe lambs. Now that they are at capacity, he plans to start marketing replacements to other farms. Harry looks for ewe lambs from dams with a history of multiple births and good growth rates. He doesn’t keep replacements out of ewe lambs, preferring the proven performance of more experienced ewes. Ewes that can’t, or won’t, raise their lambs are culled along with their female offspring.
Although most of the focus of Willowdale Lamb is on the barn and outdoor pens, there is a grazing element to the operation. Apex Farms has a hog operation just outside the nearby town of Niverville, and part of the ewe flock grazes the 60 acres surrounding those barns. Another 60 acres of rotational grazing is available on the Warkentin quarter. Four livestock guard dogs accompany the ewes in the summer and keep coyotes at bay. Predation has not been a problem so far. Ewes get wormed when they come in off the pasture.
Even with all of the automation on the farm, lambing 1,800 ewes and keeping them and their lambs fed is a big job. Harry has two full-time and 2-4 part time (depending on the season) staff working with him. These employees handle the day-to-day work of feeding the stock, moving the ewes and lambs through pens, and processing lambs in the jugs.
A number of Manitoba hog barns have been repurposed into sheep barns over the last few decades as the hog industry here has consolidated. Harry and Lorna’s expertise has made the Willowdale operation into one of the best examples of how to do this. The buildings are comfortable, bright and well ventilated. The interior is smartly laid out, and the penning well made and more than adequate for the job. The outdoor pens are well designed for our prairie climate and provide a very efficient feed delivery setup.
As Harry and I discussed the operation, it was clear to me that the Warkentin’s experience in both the dairy and hog industries have added a lot to their understanding of how to make a sheep operation run efficiently.
Randy Eros, his wife, Solange Dusablon, and their son, Michel, own and operate Seine River Shepherds near Ste-Anne, Manitoba.
By Cathy Gallivan, PhD
Sheep farmers who feed round bales are familiar with their convenience and also with the resulting high feed waste, even when round-bale feeders are used.
Many unique designs of round-bale feeders have been developed and some claim to reduce or even eliminate feed wastage. Researchers at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences conducted two experiments to investigate the effect of feeder design, roughage type and size of round bales on feed wastage in sheep.
Four indoor pens were each provided with a different type of round-bale feeder, and stocked with 10 Norwegian White ewes in early pregnancy. Ewes in each pen were given a bale of low-quality roughage (Roughage 1) that was left in the feeder for four days, followed by a bale of high-quality roughage (Roughage 2) for the next four days. Each group of 10 ewes was subjected to each type of feeder by rotating them among the pens.
Two of the round-bale feeders were circular; one had diagonal dividers (RD) and one had vertical dividers (RV). A third feeder (KR) had six sides made from linked panels that the ewes could move, with no dividers. The fourth feeder (TR) suspended the round bale in an open ‘basket’ over a square platform 18 inches off the ground. Bales were placed on the floor with round sides up in the first three feeders, and placed in the basket of the TR feeder with the round side facing sideways.
Above: RD feeder. Photos courtesy of the researchers.
Above: RV feeder. Photos courtesy of the researchers.
Above: KR feeder. Photos courtesy of the researchers.
Above: TR feeder. Photos courtesy of the researchers.
Roughage 1 (low quality) was grass silage harvested at a late stage of maturity with a dry matter (DM) content of 56.0%. Roughage 2 (high quality) was hay harvested at an early stage of maturity with 73.8% DM. Each type of roughage was baled in rounds that were approximately 47 inches tall and 52 inches in diameter. The average weight of the bales was 514 kg (288 kg DM) for Roughage 1 and 468 kg (346 kg DM) for Roughage 2. The median particle length was 7.7 inches for Roughage 1 and 3.8 inches for Roughage 2, which also had a greater leaf:stem ratio than Roughage 1.
Bales were replaced every four days, with leftover feed removed from the feeders before new bales were added. Every morning at 0800, the wasted forage on the floor surrounding the feeders was collected, weighed and sampled.
Feeding behavior of the ewes was scored by an observer at 2-minute intervals on Days 2 and 4 from 0900 to 1200, and 1500 to 1800, for each bale of Roughage 2 fed. Behavior was scored as the number of ewes eating with their whole head (both ears) inside the feeder, eating with their head partly inside the feeder (at least one ear outside the feeder), eating from the feeder while climbing with their front legs, or eating roughage from the floor outside the feeder.
Results – feed wastage
Overall, feed wastage averaged 1.1 kg DM/day per ewe. Feed waste was greatest on Day 1 (1.3 kg DM/day per ewe) and decreased gradually until Day 4 (0.9 kg DM/day per ewe). Feed wastage was almost four times as high for Roughage 1 as Roughage 2 (1.9 versus 0.5 kg DM/day per ewe). Feeder design also had significant impact on feed wastage, with more feed being wasted from the RV feeder (1.3 kg DM/day per ewe) than the KR and TR feeders (1.0 and 0.9 kg DM/day per ewe, respectively). The RD feeder (1.1 kg DM/day per ewe) was intermediate between the RV and KR or TR feeders.
Wastage from both types of round bales had lower dry matter content than the baled feeds. Wastage from Roughage 1 also had lower crude protein content compared to round bales of Roughage 1, but wastage from Roughage 2 had a similar content of crude protein as the round bales of Roughage 2.
Results – feeding behavior.
Ewes spent approximately 40% of the time during the observation periods eating. The time spent eating with the whole head inside the feeder was significantly lower for the TR-feeder than for the other feeders. Time spent eating with the head partly inside the feeder was lowest for the KR-feeder. Climbing with the front legs while eating was most prominent in the RV and TR-feeders. Time spent eating wastage from the floor was almost negligible. Interestingly, time spent eating with the whole head inside the feeder increased from 9.3% at Day 2 to 15.6% at Day 4, while time spent feeding with the head partly inside the feeder decreased from 30.3% at Day 2 to 20.8% at Day 4. Eating from the feeder while climbing with the front legs decreased only slightly from 3.6% at Day 2 to 2.8% at Day 4.
In this experiment, the ewes were offered half or whole round bales of only one roughage in each of the same four types of feeders. Roughage in this experiment was harvested at a late stage of maturity and 76.6% DM. Median particle length of the hay was 6.2 inches. Bales were fed as either half bales averaging 188 kg (145 kg DM) or whole bales weighing 419 kg (323 kg DM). Feeding behaviors were scored as in Experiment 1, but morning observations were limited to only one hour due to low feeding activity between 1000 and 1200.
Results – Feed wastage
Overall mean feed wastage in Experiment 2 was 2.2 kg DM/day per ewe and decreased gradually from Day 1 (3.0 kg DM/day per ewe) to Day 4 (1.4 kg DM/day per ewe). Feed wastage was almost twice as high for whole bales (2.9 kg DM/day per ewe) as for half bales (1.5 kg DM/day per ewe). Feed wastage was similar for all feeder types when feeding whole bales, but higher for the TR feeder when feeding half round bales. As in Experiment 1, the dry matter content of the wastage was lower than that of the round bales.
Results – feeding behavior.
Ewes spent approximately 70% of their time eating during the observation periods. Time spent eating with the whole head inside the feeder was much higher when feeding half bales than when feeding whole bales. Feeder design also influenced feeding behavior in that time spent eating with the whole head inside the feeder was lower for the TR-feeder. Time spent eating with the head partly inside the feeder was much higher when feeding whole bales, and also higher on the TR-feeder compared to the other feeders. Time spent eating while climbing with the front legs was significantly higher when feeding whole bales compared to half bales, but this behaviour only occurred on the TR-feeder when feeding half bales. Ewes spent more than twice as much time consuming feed wastage from the floor around the feeders when fed whole versus half bales, regardless of the type of feeder.
Effect of roughage quality
The amount of feed wasted in both experiments was generally high, ranging from 0.5–2.9 kg DM/day per ewe. The amount of feed wasted was actually more than estimates of how much ewes of this size would consume, in two of the four periods. Feed wastage was highest on the day a new bale was fed and gradually decreased over four days. Type of roughage, size of bale (half or whole), and feeder design all had significant effects, but the major factor influencing feed wastage was roughage quality.
In Experiment 1, the feed wastage was nearly four times higher for Roughage 1 than Roughage 2. Roughage 1 was harvested at a later stage of maturity and, hence, had a lower nutritive value. Late-harvested forages also have more stems in relation to leaves, which was seen in the longer particle length of Roughage 1. Ewes were selecting leaves in Roughage 1, as shown by the lower level of crude protein in the wastage compared to that in the round bale. The ewes must have pulled the long fibrous stems out of the feeders and left them as wastage on the floor around the feeder. There was no indication that leaves were being selected from Roughage 2, however, as the crude protein level in the wasted feed was the same as that in the round bale. Therefore, differences in selection may be a product of a greater leaf:stem ratio in the early- versus late-harvested roughage. Dry matter content of the roughage did not affect feed wastage in this study.
In Experiment 2, the roughage used was also harvested at a late stage of maturity, resulting in even more waste (2.9 versus 1.9 kg DM/day per ewe).
Effect of whole versus half bales
Feeding half bales rather than whole ones reduced feed waste by nearly half. Reducing the amount of feed in the feeder may have allowed the ewes to eat with their heads in a normal, downward position unlike when feeders contain whole bales, causing them to raise their heads to eat. The researchers speculated that the ewes dragged the feed out of the feeder in order to eat in a more normal position. This theory is supported by the data, which shows that the ewes spent more time (50.5%) with their heads inside the feeder when feeding on half round bales than when feeding on whole round bales (27.4%), resulting in more of the potential wastage being dropped inside the feeder and less on the ground outside.
In general, the ewes spent little time consuming wastage from the floor around the feeders. However, they spent more time doing so when eating whole bales compared to half bales in Experiment 2, which is probably related to the larger amount of feed wastage available when larger amounts are fed.
Effect of feeder design
Although there was a significant effect of feeder design on feed wastage, the real differences were small. In Experiment 1, where only whole bales were used, the TR feeder had the lowest feed wastage. In Experiment 2, there were no differences between the round-bale feeders when feeding whole bales, but the TR feeder had the highest wastage when feeding half bales. This might be because the half round bales did not fit properly in the TR-feeder design. The ranking of the other feeders also differed between Experiments 1 and 2, so there seems to be no clear effect of feeder design on feed wastage.
Although feeder design did have a small effect on feed wastage, the quality and amount of roughage delivered into the round bale feeders had the largest effect on how much feed was wasted. Low-quality forage fed in whole round bales resulted in the most waste, but producers may take some consolation in knowing that ewes are consuming the higher-protein portions of poor-quality bales before wasting the rest, and that they will waste much less hay fed in round bales if it is of better quality.
S.G. Kischel et al., 2019. The effect of round-bale feeder design and roughage type on feed wastage in sheep feeding. Animal, 13 (10): 2388-2397.
By Cathy Gallivan, PhD
Carrie Woolley with her husband, Brett Schuyler, and their daughter Emma. Photo courtesy of Carrie Woolley.
Schuyler Farms Limited, located near Simcoe, Ontario, consists of 3,000 acres of corn and soybeans, 700 acres of apples, 550 acres of sour (pie) cherries, and 400 acres of pasture and woodlot. The farm is run by brothers Brett and Ryan Schuyler, who are in the eighth year of a 10-year transition from their father, Marshall, and uncle, Drew Schuyler. The brothers have clearly-defined responsibilities: Brett is in charge of field management for the corn, soybeans, apples and cherries, and of the staff, including seasonal workers and eight full-time people. Ryan is in charge of the administrative side, looking after the finances, paperwork and food safety requirements.
Carrie Woolley is married to Brett Schuyler, and the mother of Emma (2) and Elliott (8 months). Carrie grew up in the area on a dairy farm, and she, as well as Brett and Ryan, all attended the University of Guelph, graduating in 2007(Ryan), 2008(Brett), and 2011(Carrie). After her undergraduate degree, Carrie stayed on in Guelph to complete a Master’s degree in Animal Behaviour and Welfare (working with dairy cattle), which she completed in 2013.
While she was working on her Master’s degree, Carrie was considering how to add livestock to the other operations at Schuyler Farms. The seeds of a sheep operation were planted in 2011, when a friend from New Zealand suggested grazing sheep between the rows of trees in the orchards, rather than mowing them. For the first two years, the Schuylers custom-grazed a neighbour’s sheep, using portable electric netting, to test out the concept. That arrangement lasted for two summers, ending just as Carrie was returning from Guelph, at which point she and Brett decided to acquire their own sheep.
The rows of cherry trees are far enough apart to permit mechanical harvesting. This also allows hay to be made in the cherry orchards early in the summer, before harvest in July and grazing in August. Photo by Cathy Gallivan.
The flock started small, with the purchase of a dozen North Country Cheviots and five Shetlands. Then Carrie met up with Mark Ritchie and Cherry Allen of Footflats Farm on Amherst Island (see Fall 2012 issue of Sheep Canada), who became her mentors as she started her own flock. At Footflats Farm, Carrie saw a production system that she could adapt to her own situation, one based on easy-care but relatively productive crossbred ewes (a mix of Border Cheviot, Romanov and Coopworth), which were housed outside, lambed once a year, and handled very little. Today, Carrie is managing 600 ewes.
In addition to the orchards, Carrie also has access to about 300 acres of permanent pasture on marginal land. The flock lambs there in May each year. The cherries are harvested in July, after which the lambs are weaned onto the cherry orchards in August.
Schuyler Farms shares ownership of a cherry processing facility (Norfolk Cherry Company) with one of their neighbours. The cherries are harvested by machines, then immersed in cold water for 24 hours, sorted, pitted, packaged and frozen for future sale.
Apple picking takes place in September and October. The process is much more labour-intensive, requiring 150 temporary labourers from Trinidad and Tobago, who are housed on the farm during their stay. The 10-12 different varieties of apples are packed and sold through the Norfolk Fruit Growers’ Association.
Ewes and lambs grazing under cherry trees in summer. Photo by Carrie Woolley.
As the sheep flock expands, so does the need for more pasture. In addition to the marginal land already being used, there are 250 acres of low value woodlot. For the last four or five years, the woodlot has been developed through a practice known as silvopasture (see sidebar page 9), in which enough of the tree canopy is removed to allow sunlight to penetrate to the forest floor, encouraging the growth of grass and other plants to support grazing by the sheep. The process involved having a professional forester mark trees to be removed by loggers, after which a forestry mulcher was brought in to clean up the understory. The area has now been aerially seeded to a mix of orchardgrass, birdsfoot trefoil, red and white clovers and ryegrass.
The perimeters of the permanent pastures (including the silvopasture) are fenced with Electrolock, an electrified Gallagher product that looks like pagewire, which is left up year-round. There is an additional live wire under the Electrolock, and one offset wire on the outside of the fence. Between the electric fence and a team of 13 livestock guardian dogs, Carrie hasn’t had much trouble with predation so far, although she does get the odd coyote kill.
In addition to grazing in pastures and orchards, the sheep also clean up crop residues such as corn stover. The climate is pretty mild in this southern part of Ontario (42.8° N), with very little snow, which means the sheep don’t require any harvested feeds before the end of the year.
The climate in the Simcoe area is mild, with small accumulations of snow that allow the sheep to forage for feed till the end of the year. Photo by Carrie Woolley.
By the new year, the flock is back on the permanent pastures and silvopasture, where they get fed round bales of silage or dry hay, depending on the year. Most of this hay is made in the early part of the summer in the cherry orchards, where the rows between the trees have been seeded with pasture mixes containing alfalfa and clovers. This is in sharp contrast to the days before the arrival of the sheep, when the rows between the trees were kept mowed “like golf courses.” Between the haying and grazing in the orchards, the farm now saves $20,000-$30,000 per year in mowing costs.
The apple trees normally last 40-50 years, while the cherry trees average only 30, partly because of the shaking they endure from the harvesters. I asked if the sheep cause any damage to the trees and Carrie told me that the sheep don’t damage mature cherry trees, but the apple trees have to be handled a little more carefully. Only the lambs graze near the apple trees, and only trees that are more than four years old. The lambs also consume apples that fall to the ground under the trees.
Above: Selective removal of trees allows sunlight to penetrate to the forest floor, promoting growth of feed for the sheep. Below: Round bales stored in silvopasture for winter feeding. Cull apples are available at no cost from the apple growers’ co-op and fed mechanically over the fence. Photos by Cathy Gallivan
With 25% each of Border Cheviot and Romanov in the commercial ewes, the flock is relatively productive, dropping about 1.7 lambs per ewe on average. The ewes are bred in one of two groups, each with several Coopworth rams. The ewe lambs are in their own group with Border Cheviot rams. Lambing takes place in May. The ewes and lambs stay in the same groups from before lambing until August when they are weaned. Carrie interferes with them very little during lambing, only going out to check for dead or ‘orphan’ lambs. Ewes that need help in this system get culled and orphans get sold as bottle lambs.
The ewes lamb on permanent pastures with lots of shelter. Photo by Cathy Gallivan.
When I asked Carrie how she chose her ewe lamb replacements given that the sires and dams are not recorded, she told me that all the ewes are scanned during pregnancy to determine if they are carrying one or more lambs, and then separated into lambing groups based on their scan results. This allows Carrie to give the ewes carrying two or more lambs the best, and most sheltered, lambing pastures. It also allows her to select lambs that are born as twins or triplets simply by restricting her selections to lambs born in that group/pasture.
This old school bus has a ramp at the back and holds 60-70 animals. Photo by Cathy Gallivan.
For managing the flock, Carrie uses a piece of software from Gallagher called APS, and speaks favourably of the company’s willingness to work with her to make needed changes to the software. If a lamb that has been treated walks across the scale, its tag is scanned and a reminder pops up to make sure it doesn’t get shipped before it should.
With sheep grazing in up to seven different locations at once, Carrie needs several energizers and watering systems. She also has a Prattley yard and an Hdale squeeze chute that can clamp animals for vaccinating and other procedures. The chute feeds into an electronic scale and Prattley autosorter.
Carrie kept 200 ewe lamb replacements in 2018. Another 500 went to a feedlot near Holstein at the end of the summer grazing season, at 50-70 lb.
A further 300 were sold as freezer lambs. These were her fastest-growing slaughter lambs, and were processed at a local abattoir (VG Meats) at 80-100 lb., in late October or early November. The frozen lamb is stored in the freezers at Norfolk Cherry Company for sale throughout the next year.
Above: A Prattley yard made up of lightweight aluminum panels is easily transported between grazing areas to weigh or process animals. The Hdale squeeze chute clamps animals for easy vaccination or ultrasonic scanning. Below: A Prattley autosorter connected to the electronic scale head weighs and sorts lambs into weight categories set by the operator, allowing rapid weekly weighing of market lambs. Photos by Carrie Woolley.
Most of the customers are restaurants, which buy specific cuts such as racks, rather than individual households buying single lambs for their freezer, and VG Meats handles most of the arrangements once the lambs have been delivered to the plant. As a local product with a unique story/brand (orchard grazing), Woolley’s Lamb is popular with restaurants that focus on local food, such as David’s Restaurant in Port Dover, which serves their lamb with a cherry chutney.
Carrie plans to expand her breeding flock of 50 purebred Coopworth ewes, and to use AI to breed them with semen from New Zealand sires selected for parasite resistance. She plans to increase the size of the commercial flock until they have about 1,000 ewes in total. Although she appreciates the vigour and productivity that the Border Cheviot and Romanov offer, she is considering increasing the percentage of Coopworth breeding in the ewes from the current level of 50%, in order to get a slightly larger lamb carcass.
After only seven years of owning her own sheep, Carrie has taken the management system she learned from Mark and Cherry at Footflats Farm and put her own stamp on it, by integrating the flock into the other operations at Schuyler Farms, and maximizing the use of resources already owned by the farm.
by Dale Engstrom, M.Sc., P.Ag
I am often asked about using free-choice loose and block minerals. Are they needed? Do they do a good job of providing essential nutrients to sheep? Are they cost effective?
Let’s start by reviewing what minerals are. Minerals fit into two classes: major (or macro) minerals and trace (or micro) minerals.
Major minerals are those that are measured in feedstuffs and reported in requirement tables as percentages (parts per hundred). For example: alfalfa hay may contain calcium in the amount of 1.6% of the dry matter, and a mineral supplement may contain 16% calcium.
Trace (or micro) minerals are measured or required and reported in milligrams per kg (mg/kg), parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb). For example: grass hay may contain copper in the amount of 5 mg/kg (or ppm), and a trace-mineralized salt may contain 250 mg/kg.
The table below shows the major and trace minerals required in specific amounts in all sheep diets.
So these minerals are ‘essential’ and needed in sheep diets. Does that mean you have to provide supplemental sources of these minerals to your sheep? Not necessarily. Most feeds contain a wide variety of these minerals. The question is: do they contain enough to meet your sheep’s requirements? The only way to know for sure is to find out what is in the feeds (by feed sampling and testing), and then balance rations for each stage of production.
The minerals in the table are the ones that may be deficient to some extent in sheep feeds. When we don’t know how much the sheep are getting, we have to fall back on general recommendations. Here are my rules of thumb for mineral supplementation:
Have major feeds that are going to be used in critical periods (flushing, late gestation, early lactation) tested, and balance rations to determine how much mineral supplementation is required.
Mix required minerals with the grain or silage portion of the ration. This may not be possible; grain is not always being fed and minerals don’t stay evenly distributed in a dry hay mix. One producer I know adds a liquid mineral supplement to his hay/grain rations to get over this problem.
If you can’t mix your mineral supplement effectively with your sheep rations, free-choice mineral feeding is a practical alternative. This is better than not feeding minerals at all when they are needed in the diet. But it pays to actively manage the free choice mineral program:
a. Select the mineral supplement that best fits your rations. Grass and legume forages are often short of phosphorus, so using a mineral relatively high in phosphorus will get you going in the right direction. Look for a salt-free mineral that contains at least 12% phosphorus. Greenfeed and grain rations are typically short of calcium. In this case, select a salt-free mineral that contains about twice as much calcium as phosphorus (e.g., 18% calcium and 9% phosphorus).
b. Always feed a trace-mineralized salt, as most feeds grown in Canada are deficient in copper, manganese, zinc, selenium, cobalt and iodine. A modest level of copper (less than 500 mg/kg) is my recommendation for sheep, while much higher levels are required for cattle and horses. You should not feed cattle and horse minerals to sheep without checking the copper level.
c. Another option is to buy a complete product, one that contains salt (sodium chloride), other major minerals (such as calcium and phosphorus) and trace minerals. The salt level should be around 40 to 60%. The sheep’s natural appetite for salt will encourage consumption of the complete mineral mix, if you don’t feed any additional salt. You can make your own complete mineral by mixing a bag of salt with a bag of salt-free mineral. This will give you 50% salt in the final mix.
d. Have a target level of mineral consumption in mind, and monitor the flock intake to get close to the target. For example, if the ewes need 20 grams (.044 lb.) of mineral mix per day, 100 ewes should then consume 14 kg (30.8 lb.) per week.
e. Keep minerals fresh by feeding two or three times per week, and feed only the amount the sheep will clean up between feedings. Use a feeder that keeps manure and rain out.
f. You can vary the salt content to increase or decrease the consumption of the overall mix. Less salt should result in more intake, and vice versa.
g. Put the mineral feeder near the water source or an area where the sheep spend time.
h. Recognize the limitations of a free-choice system. If there are high sodium levels in your water, the sheep may not eat much mineral that contains salt. Intake of free-choice mineral varies considerably between individual sheep. Deficiencies in some trace minerals, such as selenium, may need custom formulations rather than off-the-shelf products.
Consumption of blocks is usually much lower than that of loose mineral, and a block may not make a significant contribution to the nutrition program. The exception would be blocks that are high in molasses, and intake of these products is hard to predict. Blocks are generally more expensive than loose minerals, but they are also more convenient and usually have less waste. If you use blocks, be sure to monitor intake.
Mineral supplements often come fortified with vitamins ADE. If using a custom-made mineral, specify the amount of vitamins you want included. That way all of the mineral and vitamin requirements for your sheep can be met in a single product. If you are feeding the right vitamin/mineral supplements, and have achieved the right amount of intake, then there would be no need to worry about injecting vitamins or minerals (e.g., selenium) into newborn lambs or other sheep. Prevention of deficiencies through a balanced feeding program is always preferred over treatment later on.
In summary, mineral supplementation needs to be addressed when designing balanced feeding programs. While mixing minerals with grain or TMR’s (total mixed rations) is preferred, free-choice mineral feeding programs are used effectively on many sheep farms. Free choice systems will be more useful and cost-effective when managed by the shepherd, rather than by the sheep alone.
Questions and comments are welcome and can be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dale Engstrom is a retired former sheep farmer and ruminant nutritionist living in Lake Isle, Alberta, who now consults on sheep nutrition.
Story by Cathy Gallivan, PhD, Photos by Allison Taylor, PhD
Oliver and Sarah Loten.
Oliver and Sarah Loten have been raising sheep for 20 years and, like most sheep farmers, have made a lot of changes to their flock and their management in that time.
They started on a hobby farm near Carleton Place, when they were both working full time, Sarah as a teacher and Oliver in information technology. Fourteen years ago they decided to make sheep farming their way of life. They looked for a large farm that would be suitable for sheep and ended up buying 300 acres of rough (class 4-6) land near Perth with a lovely old stone house. An older dairy barn with an attached cinder block barn provided shelter for sheep and hay storage. The Lotens have since replaced the old cedar rails and single strand fence with a perimeter of page wire and five-strand high tensile electric fence and subsequent subdivisions, which is still ongoing. They have also added three greenhouse-type buildings, or ‘tunnels’, which are used to store hay and equipment, and also as shelter for ewes and lambs.
To feed the flock and produce cash crops they bought an additional 275 acres, which Oliver describes as good, but rocky (class 1); there is another 65 acres of leased land. Here they produce forage for the sheep, which is usually put up as round bale silage. They also grow corn, soybeans and small grains.
Living close to a major city means being close to markets and off-farm work, but also means putting up with non-agricultural development. One of the first things the Lotens did upon purchasing their land was to develop and file a Nutrient Management Plan, which predicted the nutrient (manure) production of their livestock and determined the land base required for its use. They filed a plan for up to 2,500 ewes (and their lambs), leaving lots of room for future expansion. By registering this plan ahead of any proposed developments in their area, they have been able to restrict development around them.
The newest of the three tunnels adjoins the two paddocks where the ewes lamb.
After moving to the new farm, Oliver and Sarah built a flock of 1,000 ewes. Like many sheep farmers who build large flocks from several sources, they found that some of the sheep they acquired were a better match for their operation than others. In the early days they tried pasture lambing but had problems with mis-mothering and lost or abandoned lambs. So they moved to indoor lambing and even tried accelerated lambing for five years. Lambing in a barn gave them more control over the ewes and lambs, but brought with it an increased workload that quickly became overwhelming. And the lamb death loss was still too high.
When they reached the point where they just couldn’t continue spending so much time with individual animals at lambing time, they decided to scale the flock back to 500 ewes and expand again with stricter criteria for lambing and raising lambs unassisted, even if it meant giving up some prolificacy. The flock now stands at 700 ewes again, and Oliver and Sarah plan to get back to 1,000 ewes and to market 1,700 lambs each year.
The centre feeding aisle is filled with sand; strips of the tunnel material are attached to the feeders to hold grain delivered from a side-delivery cart pulled by an RTV. This material is easily swept clean.
Most of the current flock is a mix of Dorset and Rideau Arcott, known in Ontario as OLIBS, after the Ontario Lamb Improvement Breeding Strategy that promoted this type of ewe back in the 1990’s. These were purchased from John and Eadie Steele, of Norwood, Ontario. There are also some Coopworths, from Foot Flats Farm on Amherst Island, Ontario. Although a little less prolific than the OLIBS-type ewes, Sarah says they do super well on pasture, the ewes are great mothers and they produce a very marketable lighter lamb. The Lotens also buy their guardian dogs from Foot Flats.
The flock now lambs in two groups. In the winter, when the farm is quiet, they lamb 150 ewes in the old dairy barn. In the spring, when they are busy with cropping and the start of haying, the rest of the flock lambs on pasture, in two paddocks close to one of the tunnels, where it is easy to keep an eye on them.
Now that they have the right ewes for the job, the Lotens find they only have to check the ewes two or three times a day. They provide the ewes with what they need to give birth and rear their lambs successfully, and then stay out of their way and let them do it. Newborn lambs only get handled if there is a problem; there is no docking or castrating, and RFID tags are applied when the lambs leave the farm. Sarah describes this system as ‘shepherd heaven’, after so many years of penning every ewe and her lambs in the barn and delivering feed to them.
Two other tunnels are used for feed and vehicle storage, and housing sheep.
They used to use a Kubota RTV to drive around the lambing ewes and check them. But because the RTV is used for feeding, the ewes tended to stop whatever they were doing and run out to meet it. When the RTV burned in a fire, they started using one of several horses on the farm to check the lambing ewes, and found they preferred it. Checking from a horse takes a little longer, but it’s quieter and gives them a better chance to observe the behaviour of the ewes.
Mature ewes are given a chance to raise triplets, but the Lotens also have an automatic milk replacer machine for rearing quadruplets or other lambs found struggling on the pasture. If a ewe loses a lamb or her lambs get into trouble, an X is sprayed on her back, and she no longer gets a second or third chance to cause trouble.
The mature ewes are bred to OLIBS-type rams or to British Suffolk terminal sires, and spend the whole year outside, except for the 150 head that lamb in the winter. They are vaccinated and wormed prior to lambing, and selectively wormed again at weaning. Udders are checked at shearing; the Lotens find that they have much less mastitis since they started lambing on pasture.
Oliver and Sarah got this large bin used for storing corn for the cost of moving and setting it up. Electric fans at the bottom are used to dry corn.
In the winter, the flock is fed round bales of hay or silage that are unrolled on the ground. They also get corn or barley, delivered from a cart pulled behind the RTV. When the weather is too cold or the snow too deep, the Lotens use a TMR (total mixed ration) wagon they purchased second-hand to deliver chopped hay or silage mixed with corn or barley. The Lotens are debating putting up corn silage in a pit to see if it would be a more cost-effective way of feeding the sheep.
Salt and a custom mineral mix with extra selenium and vitamin E for the winter are provided free choice. In the summer the sheep get salt and trace minerals.
Ewe lambs are bred to Border Cheviot rams and tend to produce a single, very vigorous, lamb. The ewe lambs overwinter in one of the tunnels, starting in mid-December, where they get some extra rations compared to the mature ewes. They usually lamb out in the tunnel in May.
Much of the future expansion of the flock will come from bought-in ewe lambs, including 100 that have been ordered from the Steeles this fall. Oliver and Sarah prefer to focus on what they are good at and delegate other activities to people who are good at them. They aren’t keen record-keepers and prefer to allow the Steeles to keep the extensive records and make selection decisions for them. They have bought animals from the Steeles in the past and found them a good match for their own system.
This gathering system has made bringing the sheep in from the pasture much easier.
May-born lambs are weaned in mid- to late July, depending on how well the pasture is holding up. The ewes return to the pasture but the lambs stay inside where they are grown out and finished. Lambs are vaccinated with 8-way and wormed at weaning, and amprolium is added to their water for the first five days to help prevent problems with coccidiosis. They are separated into groups of similar size so that small lambs do not have to compete with big lambs. Small lambs are kept in the old barn and larger lambs moved to the tunnels where the feeders are higher.
The Lotens used to pasture their weaned lambs, and finish them on grain. But coyotes, parasites and the challenges of summer pasture management made it difficult to grow out and finish the lambs in a consistent and uniform manner, so now they keep them inside after weaning.
In 2008, they lost 150 lambs to coyotes. Living so close to the city limited their options for control; complaints about noise from neighbours limit the number of guard dogs they can use, and there are restrictions on trapping in the area.
Most of the 2013 lamb crop have been shipped.
Like sheep farmers all across Canada, the Lotens have run into problems with resistant worms. With the assistance of their vet, they are trying Cydectin and levamisole. The Cydectin has too long a withdrawal period (two months) to be used on the lambs, but can be used on the ewes. Withdrawal time on the levamisole is only four days, making it ideal for the lambs. Sarah reserves the levamisole for the lambs after they have come into the barn to stay, so that they will not deposit resistant worms on the pasture. She has also tried selective worming (worming only those animals that show signs of parasites) and found it worked for the ewes but not for the lambs. The Lotens also use pasture rotation to limit the spread of worms; the pastureland is divided into 14 paddocks with electric fence.
The lambs are weaned onto a diet of mostly hay, with a small amount of corn that is gradually increased. A 35% crude protein pellet, with Bovatec for continued protection against coccidiosis, is mixed with the corn. The Lotens have also used unprocessed soybeans as a protein supplement. Some of these come from the transfer mix of corn/soybeans that has to be dumped from the combine when it switches from one crop to the next. Sarah says the soybeans work well if the moisture is right and the ratio of soybeans to barley isn’t higher than 1:5, and they save money by not having to process the soybeans. They haven’t fed the soybeans recently because they are worth too much money but will again if the price is right.
In addition to changing the makeup of the flock, the Lotens decided to invest in infrastructure that would make the job of looking after the sheep easier. This included building a permanent handling system in the old dairy barn and putting up the third tunnel four years ago. The tunnel is organized around a central alley that accommodates a side-delivery grain cart pulled by the RTV. Corn is delivered in the cart, then top-dressed with pellets. Round bales of hay are fed right in the pens. Sarah says that making it easier to do the feeding also makes it easier to find someone to feed the sheep, allowing them to occasionally get away from the farm.
Lambs are marketed at the nearby Ottawa Livestock Exchange, which handles 300-600 lambs per week. Oliver takes 15 to 30 lambs at a time, but doesn’t go every week. He says Ottawa is a strong market for heavy lambs (around 90 lb.), while lighter lambs do better at the Ontario Stock Yards at Cookstown.
The ewes lamb in one of four paddocks close to the newest tunnel, where it is easy to keep an eye on them. Photo by Sarah Loten.
On the day we visited, Oliver had just returned from delivering a load of lambs to the exchange. He can fit 30 lambs in the trailer, which will be sold in six groups of five. The January-born lambs sell in May and June at 90-95 lb, but if 80-lb. lambs are selling well when these early lambs hit 80 lb., they will let them go at that weight. May-born lambs start selling in September. Oliver often sends a group of small lambs to Toronto around Christmas, and hopes to be all out of lambs by the end of the year.
The Lotens find that selling lambs directly to consumers takes more time than they want to spend, although they usually sell a group of lambs to the Greek Festival each year. As with the record-keeping, Oliver and Sarah know where they do and don’t want to spend their time, and direct marketing of lambs isn’t a priority.
That’s not surprising considering all of their other responsibilities. Oliver works full time off the farm as a technical writer, maintains the farm infrastructure and markets the lambs. Sarah does most of the farming and care of the sheep. She also teaches cello lessons from their home, competes in dressage and gives therapeutic riding lessons after school. The Lotens have five children: Emma (22), Tim (18), Evan (14), Grace (10) and Alice (9). Emma teaches riding lessons and trains horses and Tim will be heading off to university next year. The three youngest children are still in elementary or middle school.
The Loten flock is mostly OLIBS and Coopworth ewes. Photo by Sarah Loten.
When the Lotens moved to Perth 14 years ago, the goal was to be full time farmers. But they’ve come to enjoy the balance of the activities they do both on and off the farm, paid and unpaid. The farm is central to the family’s economy and lifestyle, with ‘all hands on deck’, but they also value family time in other areas and time spent on other interests and skills developed over the years. Because of this, it is important that labour is used efficiently and that the farm makes a decent profit; but it also offers value as an activity that they enjoy as a significant part of life. Like so many things in life, it is all about balance…
Story & photos by Cathy Gallivan, PhD
I met with Fred and Anne Hamilton on a sunny day in early July, on the farm that has been in Fred’s family since the expulsion of the Acadians in 1760. The original land grant was 1,000 acres. By 1802, the family had eight heirs and the farm was subdivided; in 2013, 500 acres of the original farm remain.
Like many sheep farmers, Fred acquired his first ewes, a flock of 40 culls, to support his Border Collie habit. But when BSE came to Canada ten years ago, the Hamiltons sold their beef herd and restocked with commercial Rideau Arcotts. The flock now stands at 250 head.
Dairy barn and farm sign.
About 90% of the Rideau ewes are bred to Texel terminal sires, with the rest bred to Rideau rams to produce replacement ewes. There are also 12 purebred Texel ewes that son Fabian (21), a recent graduate of the Faculty of Agriculture at Dalhousie University (formerly the Nova Scotia Agricultural College) in Truro, enjoys showing. Daughter Andrea (19) seems set to continue the family’s agricultural tradition, as she is currently enrolled at the same institution.
Haylage for cows and sheep is packed on the ground, and covered with plastic and heaped earth.
In addition to the 250 ewes, the Hamiltons also milk 40 head of Holsteins and put up corn silage, haylage, and two (or three, in a good year) cuts of hay. The farm has 150 acres of pasture (70 fenced for sheep) and 35 acres are planted for corn silage each year. The rest, including 200 acres of productive marshland, is harvested for hay and haylage. Both the corn silage and the haylage are piled on the ground and covered with plastic, with earth heaped up on the edges to form a tight seal.
Cows are fed a 75:25 mix of haylage and corn silage and the ewe flock gets the same mix. Like most flocks feeding silage to sheep, there is some incidence of listeriosis, which they minimize by feeding the best quality silage to the sheep.
Recently weaned lambs on corn silage and concentrate in feedlot pens.
When I visited in July, a group of lambs had been weaned a week or so earlier, and were being self-fed on corn silage and 1-1¼ lb. of a concentrate ration per day. Prior to weaning the lambs had been on pasture with their dams, but were creep fed in the corrals each night.
The flock is divided into three groups, which lamb in December, February and May. The ewes are not accelerated – they just lamb at different times of year. This strategy allows the family to run a larger flock than they could accommodate in their lambing barn all at once. It also lets them lamb a manageable number of ewes around other farm activities, and sell lambs year-round.
Commercial Rideau ewes wait to enter handling system.
The conception rate on the fall lambing is around 80%. In 2012, the Hamiltons moved the fall lambing back to November, but got fewer ewes lambing than in December in previous years, so have gone back to December for this year. The ewes are synchronized with CIDRs in batches of 30 a week apart, with eight rams per group.
Conception rates are nearly 100% for the February and May lambings, where the mature ewes drop an average of 250%. There are lots of triplets and the ewes rear many of them, but when they don’t, there is a ready supply of cow colostrum and milk for them. Ewe lambs that give birth to triplets are only allowed to raise two.
The handling system is located inside this shed, which is attached to the lambing barn.
Ewe lamb replacements are chosen from those born in February and lamb for the first time in November, when they are nearly two years old.
One of the reasons for moving the fall lambing to November is that in December Fred and Anne run horse-drawn sleigh rides on the farm, using three Belgian and two Clydesdale draft horses (two teams plus a spare). Sleigh rides are followed by parties at the camp on the farm, with chili or beans and brown bread on the menu.
With a dog at the back of the flock, the ewes move through the doorway into the handling system.
When not milking, lambing or driving horses, Fred gives herding demonstrations with his Border Collies. All of the animals on this farm appear to have jobs – even one of the cats, which had a cameo appearance in a movie filmed in the area.
On the day I visited, Anne and Fabian were running the ewe flock through the handling system and checking the ewes to see if they needed to be wormed. This was done primarily by examining their eyes for signs of anemia, but thin ewes, as well as those with dirty rear ends, also came in for special attention. On this occasion, 20 out of 250 ewes were treated with normectin. By worming selectively, rather than just worming all the ewes, the Hamiltons save money on worming products but, more importantly, hope to prevent the development of resistant worms.
Anne and Fabian check the ewes’ eyes for signs of anemia caused by parasites.
Before the end of summer, this process was repeated twice more, with a larger number of ewes treated each time. Fecal samples were collected from individual ewes two weeks after each run-through, and submitted to a research project examining parasite resistance in the province.
Predators are not a huge problem for the Hamiltons. In a bad year, they might lose three or four lambs, but have not lost any so far this year. A local trapper controls coyote populations in the area, and they bring the ewes and lambs in from the pasture each night. When I spoke to Fred again in early September, he mentioned that they had a group of 80 ewes and five rams grazing inside electric netting down on marsh (across the road from the farm). For additional protection, he is using two Foxlights, situated 100 feet apart. These are a new predator deterrent product from Australia, sold by the Canadian Co-operative Wool Growers Ltd.
The horse barn houses five draft horses plus harness.
The Hamiltons are members of the nearby Northumberland Lamb Marketing Co-op (Northumberlamb), which is only 10 or 15 minutes from the farm. By lambing three times a year, they are able to ship lambs in the winter and spring when there is no waiting, and receive a premium price. And in the summer and fall, when everyone has lambs ready, producers who ship in the winter and spring are given priority.
The Texel-Rideau cross lambs ship at 100-105 lb. to meet the requirements of the co-op for carcasses between 42 and 54 pounds, with GR measurements from 4 mm for a 42 lb. lamb up to 15 mm for a 54 lb. lamb, and acceptable carcass conformation. They also have to be clean. Lambs that have excessive mud or manure may be assessed a financial penalty and producers with consistently dirty lambs risk being taken off the list of approved suppliers.
Grain feeder made from a 12-inch plastic culvert split in half and capped with wood on each end. The rounded bottom is slippery and the sheep don’t tend to stand in it.
After my visit with the Hamiltons, I took a short drive to the Brookside Abbatoir, home of Northumberlamb, and visited Michael Isenor, who has been the co-op’s General Manager since its inception in 1982. The co-op buys nearly 6,000 lambs per year from about 100 farms in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. Whole carcasses and retail cuts are delivered to restaurants and grocery stores all over Nova Scotia each week.
When I visited in early July, the Northumberlamb base price was $3.50/lb. This was about a dollar off the price for the same time last year. Like many lamb processors, Michael mentioned that the last two years of extremely high lamb prices, while good for sheep producers, have been somewhat less beneficial for processors. This includes the co-op, which can sell (and buy) more lamb when prices are more moderate.
The expanded and upgraded Northumberlamb plant.
At the time of my visit, the co-op was awaiting a visit from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), to see if the recent expansion and upgrade of the plant will qualify it for federal inspection. The 30 members of the co-op have invested nearly $600,000 into the project. If it is approved for federal inspection, the co-op will qualify to supply lamb to Atlantic warehouses, to be shipped outside Nova Scotia. This should allow them to sell more lamb; the hope is to expand the kill to 10,000+ lambs per year. As I write this in early September, the co-op has had one inspection from CFIA and is awaiting word on another.
Editor’s Note: Information on Foxlights night predator deterrent, as well as prices of dressed lambs at Northumberlamb, are available online here.
Story by Peggy Johnson, Photos by Tracy Hagedorn
A community with deeply rooted traditions embraces modern technology. Photo by Nathan Hofer
After months of winter gloom, it was wonderful to drive across central Alberta on a sunny morning and experience the magic of spring: soft green of new leaves emerging from tree buds, the hint of grass in the roadside ditches and pastures, new calves worrying their mothers as they ate the last of the winter hay, and geese swimming on the sloughs.
Interior of the new barn. Note air intakes on ceiling.
My destination was the Red Willow Hutterite Colony, northeast of the town of Stettler. The colony was established in 1948, and includes a beef feedlot, a dairy, chickens, turkeys, a sheep flock and extensive cropland. Lawrence Hofer and his wife Marie gave me the tour. The Hofers have four children, two boys and two girls. Their oldest daughter is married, but Nathan (23), Jordan (20), and Caitlyn (18), all help with the sheep. Nathan is the ‘go-to’ guy for keeping computer records.
After 60 years of lambing in the old sheep barn, the people of the colony have constructed an impressive new facility. They started in November of 2011 and finished only three months later in January of 2012. The barn is 80 feet wide by 300 feet long by 16 feet high, with a 2”x 8” wood frame, insulated with fiberglass. The interior walls are lined with plastic (Ag–Liner) and the exterior covered with metal cladding.
The barn includes an attached living quarters and storage area. This building is 23 feet wide by 50 feet long, and includes an open kitchen, dining and seating area paneled in naturally-finished birch, a bedroom/office that sleeps three people, and a three-piece bathroom. The cement floor has hot water heat, from the utility room in the barn. Although it is attached to the barn, there is no direct access. You step outside and enter the barn from a side door. This prevents barn odours from entering the living area. During lambing, the Hofers’ sons Nathan and Jordan, and their nephew Marvin, stay here and work in rotating three-hour shifts. Lawrence is at the barn from 6 am until 10 pm, but goes home to sleep.
Control room in the new barn.
The barn itself includes a room that houses an automatic milk replacer machine, a utility room, a storage area and a two-piece bathroom.
Lawrence calls the Lac-Tek machine a lifesaver, and wouldn’t want to be without it. It can support 60 lambs at a time, but only six were on it the day we visited. It mixes warm milk replacer on demand from the lambs, and pumps it through the wall to nipples secured on the side of the lamb pen. Lawrence says that teaching the lambs to suck by holding them up to the nipples several times the first day is relatively easy, and that they learn to access the milk replacer pretty quickly.
The colony runs 14 shearing machines at a time
Lambs raised on the machine grow well, and Lawrence has weaned them in as little as three weeks. Weaning is accomplished by putting water into the milk supply system. The machine is easy to maintain, as it only needs to be cleaned every other day. The lambs also have access to a commercial creep feed that is medicated with Deccox to prevent coccidiosis.
The utility room houses the complex piping for the barn’s watering system. Lawrence is using a product called Oxyblast 50 (hydrogen peroxide) to purify the water in the barn, but the system could also be used to provide medication to animals in one or more pens. The stainless steel waterers in the barn were built on the colony, and sit on poured cement pads. Water bowls are hinged on one end and can be tipped up and emptied for easy cleaning. The utility room also houses a stationary pressure washer for washing the barn.
Air quality in the barn is maintained through a Hotraco negative pressure ventilation system. Fresh air enters the barn through the many controlled openings in the peak of the roof, and stale air is exhausted by fans in the end wall. Heat is provided by infrared heaters at one end, suspended from the ceiling above the lamb pen and lambing jugs. The temperature of the barn is maintained at 70C. When the weather is warm enough, all of the doors are opened and the system goes from powered to natural ventilation.
Office and living quarters attached to the new barn.
The barn was built to house the colony’s commercial Suffolk flock, which consists of 500 mature ewes, 200 ewe lambs and 14 purebred Suffolk rams. Lawrence is a strong supporter of buying performance-tested rams to make genetic improvement in the flock. He says this is one of the best investments a producer can make. The colony purchased eight rams in 2012, all from the Parker Stock Farm in Three Hills, Alberta.
The Red Willow flock lambs once each year, with the mature ewes going first, followed by the ewe lambs. Rams were turned out on August 15th last year. The ewes stay on pasture until shearing time, but are fed a total mixed ration (TMR) in feed troughs after the first snowfall, or when they run out of grass. They occasionally graze during the day on grain stubble or silage regrowth.
Shearing took place on December 15th, in preparation for lambing in mid-January. The setup for shearing is greatly simplified by a pipe and plywood shearing/handling system built onsite. It supports 14 hand pieces that are run by young men from Red Willow and nearby Donalda Colony. Last year, shearing got underway at 8 am and by 3 pm the entire flock was done.
Lambing jugs are constructed in double rows of seven from oilfield drill pipe and welded wire panels.
After shearing, the ewes move into the barn and are fed a late pregnancy TMR. Lawrence and Nathan balance rations using the online SheepBytes program, but also get some help from a nutritionist. The ration is a mix of silage and hay, and includes .75 lb. of barley per head per day for the pregnant ewes, as well as a 32% crude protein supplement medicated with oxytetracycline to prevent abortions. Approximately 4,700 lb. of TMR is fed each morning with a mixer wagon and if it is all consumed by evening, the ewes receive a ‘top-up’ of small square bales of hay. A second TMR with barley at 1.75 lb. per head per day is fed to lactating ewes. Ewes are injected with selenium six weeks prior to lambing. Ewe lambs are housed and fed separately during the winter, and lamb after the mature ewes.
A length of PVC pipe equipped with a float and attached to a water supply provides water for 14 lambing jugs.
Ewes and newborn lambs are placed in (4’x4’) lambing jugs, which were built onsite from 2⅜ inch drill stem pipe frames and welded wire panels. Each bank of lambing jugs is a double row of seven pens, with a six-inch PVC pipe at the back, which supplies water to jugs on either side. The banks of jugs are moved into the barn with a front-end loader and levelled, so the water in the PVC pipe reaches all of the jugs. Ewes and lambs stay in the jugs for 12 to 24 hours. Before being moved to group pens, the lambs are docked with rubber rings and tagged with Shearwell RFID tags. They are also navel-dipped and injected with penicillin to prevent joint ill.
The colony participated in the Alberta Lamb Traceability Project, and make use of RFID technology in their data collection and record keeping. Lambing data is collected in the jugs on a Psion handheld device and downloaded into FarmWorks software on the computer in the office. Records from the most recent lambing indicate that they had 172% lambs born alive in 2013.
Portable lamb self-feeder.
Lawrence was disappointed with the number of triplets born this year, and plans to breed the ewes a month later this fall. The ewe lambs and mature ewes will be placed on a field of seeded barley pasture in early fall for flushing. They will be fed one pound of barley per head per day for three weeks and then two pounds of barley per head per day for an additional three weeks, prior to breeding.
From the lambing jugs, ewes and lambs move into pens in the barn that hold 60 ewes and their offspring. The pens are filled in chronological order, but ewes nursing triplets are penned separately and given a more concentrated TMR. Pens are bedded with small square bales of straw, put up on the colony farm.
A small grain feeder that lambs can’t get their feet in!
Lambs are weaned at eight weeks of age by moving the ewes out of the pens and leaving the lambs behind in their familiar environment. Lawrence used to wean the lambs at six weeks, but finds waiting two more weeks means the ewes are less likely to develop mastitis and the lambs keep right on growing after being weaned.
Weaned lambs are fed a ration of whole barley and supplement that is delivered to the pens in self-feeding carts, along with a small square bale of second-cut hay in the feed bunks in each pen every other day. The feed carts are also built onsite; they hold 3,500 pounds of feed, and are moved into the pens with a tractor. A full cart feeds a pen for about two weeks.
Lambs are weighed through a Racewell handling system, beginning at 50 days, and again as they approach the optimum market weight of 120 pounds. The best ram lamb this year showed an average daily gain of 1.88 pounds per day. Lambs are marketed through a contract to SunGold Specialty Meats and delivered to the plant at Innisfail, about an hour’s drive from Red Willow.
This shearing floor allows for quick setup on shearing day by multiple shearers. Ewes are penned inside the structure and are easily available through the swinging gates.
Two hundred ewe lamb replacements will be selected again this year. Some are chosen at birth from ewes with a history of successful lamb rearing or from a particular sire. Other selections are based on adjusted weaning weights from the FarmWorks software. All are examined for good feet and legs and other conformation traits.
Ewes that can’t or won’t nurse all their lambs, or those that have laid on a lamb, are culled. The rest of the ewes are moved after weaning to a 200-acre creek bottom pasture just behind the barn. The pasture is fenced with pagewire with two strands of barbed wire on top. Given the hilly terrain, I wondered about predators. Lawrence says that their neighbours hunt coyotes and the boys snare them in the winter. Predators have not been an issue so far, so they don’t have any guardian dogs. Dead animals are composted in the manure pile to avoid attracting predators.
Pasture management includes cutting Canada thistle with a gyro mower in mid- to late summer. Future plans include separating the large pasture into smaller ones with additional fencing, and rotating the ewes through the pastures.
When asked if he wished he could make any changes to their system, Lawrence suggests that he only wishes they had built the new barn bigger.
Editor’s Note: Many sheep producers reading this story will be thinking about the cost of building such a barn, especially relative to the current price of lamb. But if you got 60 years of service out of your last barn, and plan to get 60 years out of a new one, and you have the skills and manpower to build the new barn yourself, it’s easier to take a long-term view of the industry and have the confidence to keep investing in it.
Peggy Johnson has recently retired from teaching animal science at Olds College. She and her daughter Sarah have a flock of Est a Laine Merino cross ewes on their farm near Sundre, Alberta.
Story & photos by Stuart Chutter
Corn is an important part of the Catto feeding program. The whole plant can be used for grazing… (Photo courtesy of Martin & Louise Catto.)
Martin and Louise Catto farmed in Scotland prior to moving to Canada almost 15 years ago. Although their principal enterprise was dairy farming, they would purchase 500 ewes each year in the fall, lamb them out in the spring and then sell them with lambs at foot. That all changed in 1999 when they moved to Lipton, Saskatchewan.
The move to Canada was largely prompted by better farming opportunities here. European regulation and land prices limited any farm growth in Scotland. Martin mentions that when they moved to Saskatchewan, the cost to buy an acre of land here was roughly equivalent to the cost of renting an acre in Scotland. The couple pencilled out several farming enterprises in Canada, including a dairy, but the cost of quota ruled out milking cows and the decision was made for a mixed grain and sheep operation.
… or the crop can be combined and ewes grazed on the aftermath. (Photo courtesy of Martin & Louise Catto)
The first group of 80 ewes arrived on the farm before any sheep fencing had been prepared. A Border Collie that came over from Scotland with the family herded the sheep while fencing and basic facilities were put in place. Additions to the flock were hard to come by at that time, as large groups were rarely available. The Cattos limited themselves to buying complete flock dispersals, to reduce the risk of disease and make sure they were buying good quality, functional ewes.
From those early days the flock has grown to over 2,500 ewes in 2013, and is one of the largest flocks on the prairies. Lambing started in February and will be done in three batches: the February group, another in March just before shearing, and the last group, which includes the ewe lambs, in June. The April/May break allows Martin to get out of the barn and into the shop to prepare for seeding. Martin points out that a lot of their sheep flock management has to be planned around the grain operation, and that there are tradeoffs between what is ideal for sheep production and what is manageable for a mixed farming operation.
Dividers between pens are removable for easy barn cleaning. Snow fence at the back of the barn protects siding from debris that blows out of the bale processor when spreading straw.
All of the ewes go through jugs, where the lambs are docked and tagged and their navels dipped. Males are not castrated, as marketing is done direct to processors and the Cattos have enough lambs to keep males and females of various weights in separate feedlot pens. While in the jugs, the lambs are also scanned into the FarmWorks flock management program.
The Cattos were enrolled on the national RFID pilot project and credit RFID as a primary driver in their flock improvement. Louise is quick to point out that there was a learning process with electronic management. She laughs as she tells me that there are three different types of pneumonia on their farm, because of three different spellings used when the farm computer was originally set up! The RFID management system consists of a handheld Psion tag reader/portable computer, paired with an electronic scale and Racewell drafting system. Automating these procedures has dramatically reduced the labour of managing their flock.
Extra predator protection on outside pen fences.
Of particular note to me was the fact that this large group of lambing ewes had so far produced only one orphan lamb. For me this is a lambing dream; the Cattos credit it to strict culling, adequate time in the jugs and a non-prolific yet highly maternal ewe base. The flock is largely Texel and Cheviot breeding, so litter sizes are manageable for the ewes. Louise says that in an average year they usually have only about 20 orphan lambs.
In the beginning the Cattos lambed out on pasture, but coyotes quickly put an end to that. Martin credits the barns as one of the best investments on the farm. With an increase in lambs weaned per ewe from roughly 1.3 when lambing on pasture to 1.7 when lambing in the barn, Martin is confident that the extra labour and infrastructure are adequately rewarded.
This device is used on the tractor front-end loader to move ewes and lambs from the lambing barn to the open-front sheds.
The increased weaning percentage can also be attributed to the attention the Cattos give to their advanced and precise feeding program. Scientific rationale is behind every feeding decision, from breeding to marketing. Every feed ingredient is tested and rations adjusted accordingly.
Flushing is done while the ewes are grazing corn. Martin’s anecdotal evidence supports corn grazing over alfalfa forage for increased ovulation rate. They have recently switched to a variety that matures in a shorter period of time, a decision that goes against most forage-based philosophy. They made this decision because it allows the option of harvesting the corn for higher-value grain sales instead of grazing it. Even if the crop is combined, the stubble provides quality grazing for flushing.
Winter feeding consists of a total mixed ration (TMR) delivered with a vertical mixer wagon. The Cattos use the SheepBytes ration balancer developed in Alberta, and feel that the annual subscription fee was recovered in the first week of feeding. Rations can be balanced for each stage of production and adjusted daily based on how much is left over at the feed bunk. Prior to using SheepBytes, all feeding had to be completed by one person so that rations were consistent and mistakes avoided. The SheepBytes printouts provide ration ‘cook books’, with easy to follow weights and adjustment factors. With this new system, the winter feeding chores for 3,000+ animals in 12 pens with four or five different rations are all finished within two hours, and can be done by anyone on the farm team.
Home-made feed bunks are filled daily
Winter feed is provided in homemade feed bunks inside each pen, rather than a fence line feeder from outside. Although extra labour is required to lock the sheep up prior to feeding in each pen, nursing lambs can’t wander out of one pen and back into a different one, creating mixups and potential losses. The lack of waste in this system was incredible. I could not figure out what it was about these feed bunks (feeder angle, spacing or height) that made them work so well, but there was virtually no waste outside the bunks.
TMR ingredients include alfalfa silage, hay, grain, salt and mineral. They don’t make any corn silage because if it isn’t good enough to combine, the corn can be grazed with no associated harvest cost. Most of the on-farm forage is made into silage, because it can all be harvested, packed and covered within about two weeks. Martin feels the time required to put the forage up as hay would be unmanageable. There is some hay added to the TMR, but only as much as needed to decrease the moisture content. Hay is put through a bale shredder before it goes in the mixer wagon to decrease waste and ease mixing. The Cattos have yet to experience any notable Listeria problems with this silage-based feeding program and credit that to the care they take to properly pack, line and cover the pits.
A mixer feed wagon is used to fill the home-made feed bunks.
The only element I could think of that might be missing from their nutrition program is scanning and sorting ewes by the number of lambs they are carrying, in order to feed them separately. Martin concedes this would allow even more precise feeding of the flock, but he does not have enough confidence in scanning equipment or operators to put this into practice. In such a remote prairie location, a reliable and experienced scanning practitioner is not readily or affordably available. They have tried scanning ewes in the past and later been surprised when ‘open’ ewes have lambed.
For the past several years, the early-lambing ewes have been shipped after weaning to the Elbow Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA) multi-species grazing project in central Saskatchewan. This federal pasture uses sheep to manage leafy spurge on thousands of acres of publicly-owned grazing land. The flock is herded daily by a shepherd or two, and penned at night with electric netting and a pack of guard dogs. Leafy spurge is a noxious weed of growing concern among the prairie provinces and in many remote and environmentally sensitive areas sheep grazing is the best and/or only management tool.
Unfortunately, with the recent federal announcement that PFRA lands will be transferred to the respective provinces, special projects like sheep grazing have been cancelled to ease the transition. For the Cattos, this means the loss of affordable grazing for roughly 1,200 ewes on relatively short notice. The saving grace is their mixed farming model. Among their grain land there is marginal land such as bush and sloughs which, in addition to stubble grazing potential, can be fenced to make up the PFRA grazing loss. The side benefit of this change is that the ewe flock can now be closed to eliminate the health risks they had to live with when using community pasture.
The use of the home-made feed bunks and mixer wagon minimize waste.
Most of the Catto’s lambs end up out east, but their marketing program changes every year depending on pricing and opportunity. Their biggest problem is having enough lambs hit prime condition at the same time to fill a liner. In spite of this, they have been pleased with the results when their lambs have sold on a rail grade basis. But rather than credit genetics or feeding, Martin and Louise believe carcass index success requires shipping decisions based on weight and body condition, rather than weight alone as a market-ready indicator.
Most obvious to me during my visit to the Catto farm was how every process in the production chain has modern and scientific thinking behind it. Nothing is done because “that’s how my father did it” or “we’ve always done it like that”. Every process was built on relevant logic and if that logic is challenged with new ideas, the process gets improved.
As a young farmer myself, I am building my flock and trying to improve productivity every year. But I still have a long way to go and progress often feels slow. So I specifically asked Martin and Louise how long it took them to get their flock to their desired level of production. Martin quickly retorted that there is never an ideal flock and improvement must always be continuous.
“You can’t sit back and think that you have achieved it,” Martin says, “there is always something to change for next year.”
Stuart Chutter is a commercial sheep and meat goat producer in south western Saskatchewan.